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Yoga (Sanskrit, Pāli: योग, yoga) is a physical, mental, and spiritual discipline, originating in ancient India. The goal of yoga, or of the person practicing yoga, is the attainment of a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility while meditating on the Hindu concept of divinity or Brahman. The word is associated with meditative practices in Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism.
Within Hindu philosophy, the word yoga is used to refer to one of the six orthodox (āstika) schools of Hindu philosophy. Yoga in this sense is based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, and is also known as Rāja Yoga to distinguish it from later schools. Patanjali’s system is discussed and elaborated upon in many classical Hindu texts, and has also been influential in Buddhism and Jainism. The Bhagavad Gita introduces distinctions such as Jnana Yoga (“yoga based on knowledge”) vs. Karma Yoga (“yoga based on action”).
The Sanskrit word yoga has the literal meaning of “yoke”, from a root yuj meaning to join, to unite, or to attach. As a term for a system of abstract meditation or mental abstraction it was introduced by Patañjali in the 2nd century BC. Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi or yogini.
The goals of yoga are varied and range from improving health to achieving moksha. Within the Hindu monist schools of Advaita Vedanta, Shaivism and Jainism, the goal of yoga takes the form of moksha, which is liberation from all worldly suffering and the cycle of birth and death (samsara), at which point there is a realization of identity with the Supreme Brahman. In the Mahabharata, the goal of yoga is variously described as entering the world of Brahma, as Brahman, or as perceiving the Brahman or Ātman that pervades all things. For the bhakti schools of Vaishnavism, bhakti or service to Svayam Bhagavan itself may be the ultimate goal of the yoga process, where the goal is to enjoy an eternal relationship with Vishnu.
The Sanskrit word yoga has the literal meaning of “yoke“, or “the act of yoking or harnessing”, from a root yuj. A serious practitioner of Yoga (someone pursuing the higher spiritual and religious goals of Yoga) takes upon themselves a life of austere self-discipline common to nearly all forms of mystical and religious life. The practices that constitute this self-disciplined life are called in yoga yama and niyama. This self-discipline is the ‘yoke’ that one puts upon oneself for the purpose of attaining moksha. An alternative definition is that Yoga is the method of yoking, or unifying, the “lower” (egoistic) personality (those inclinations that in Hellenistic philosophy and Christianity are called passions) to the “higher” via a process of sublimation. In Vedic Sanskrit, the term “yoga” besides its literal meaning, the yoking or harnessing of oxen or horses, already has a figurative sense, where it takes the general meaning of “employment, use, application, performance” (compare the figurative uses of “to harness” as in “to put something to some use”). All further developments of the sense of this word are post-Vedic. A sense of “exertion, endeavour, zeal, diligence” is found in Epic Sanskrit. The more technical sense of the term “yoga”, describing a system of meditation or contemplation with the aim of the cessation of mental activity and the attaining of a “supreme state” arises with early Buddhism (5th century BC), and is adopted in Vedanta philosophy by the 4th century BC.
There are a great many compounds containing yog in Sanskrit, many of them unrelated to the technical or spiritual sense the word has taken in Vedanta. Yoga in these words takes meanings such as “union, connection, contact”, or “method, application, performance”, etc. For example, guṇá-yoga means “contact with a cord”; cakrá-yoga has a medical sense of “applying a splint or similar instrument by means of pulleys (in case of dislocation of the thigh)”; candrá-yoga has the astronomical sense of “conjunction of the moon with a constellation”; puṃ-yoga is a grammatical term expressing “connection or relation with a man”, etc.
Many such compounds are also found in the wider field of religion. Thus, bhakti-yoga means “devoted attachment” in the monotheistic Bhakti movement. The term kriyā-yoga has a grammatical sense, meaning “connection with a verb”. But the same compound is also given a technical meaning in the Yoga Sutras (2.1), designating the “practical” aspects of the philosophy, i.e. the “union with the Supreme” due to performance of duties in everyday life.
 Before Patanjali
Several seals discovered at Indus Valley Civilization sites, dating to the mid 3rd millennium BC, depict figures in positions resembling a common yoga or meditation pose, showing “a form of ritual discipline, suggesting a precursor of yoga,” according to archaeologist Gregory Possehl. Some type of connection between the Indus Valley seals and later yoga and meditation practices is speculated upon by many scholars, though there is no conclusive evidence.
Techniques for experiencing higher states of consciousness in meditation were developed by the shramanic traditions and in the Upanishadic tradition. While there is no clear evidence for meditation in pre-Buddhist early Brahminic texts, there is a view that formless meditation might have originated in the Brahminic tradition. This is based on strong parallels between Upanishadic cosmological statements and the meditative goals of the two teachers of the Buddha as recorded in early Buddhist texts. As well as some less likely possibilities, the view put forward is that cosmological statements in the Upanishads reflect a contemplative tradition, and it is concluded that the Nasadiya Sukta contains evidence for a contemplative tradition, even as early as the late Rg Vedic period.
 Upanishadic and Early Buddhist era
The more technical linguistic sense of the term “yoga”, describing a system of meditation or contemplation with the aim of the cessation of mental activity and the attaining of a “supreme state” arises with early Buddhism. In Hindu scripture, this sense of the term “yoga” first appears in the middle Upanishads, such as the Katha Upanishad (ca. 400 BCE). Shvetashvatara Upanishad mentions, “When earth, water, fire, air and akasa arise, when the five attributes of the elements, mentioned in the books on yoga, become manifest then the yogi’s body becomes purified by the fire of yoga and he is free from illness, old age and death.” (Verse 2.12). More importantly in the following verse (2.13) it mentions, the “precursors of perfection in yoga”, namely lightness and healthiness of the body, absence of desire, clear complexion, pleasantness of voice, sweet odour and slight excretions.
The early Buddhist texts describe meditative practices and states that existed before the Buddha, as well as those first developed within Buddhism. One key innovative teaching of the Buddha was that meditative absorption must be combined with liberating cognition. Meditative states alone are not an end, for according to the Buddha, even the highest meditative state is not liberating. Instead of attaining a complete cessation of thought, some sort of mental activity must take place: a liberating cognition, based on the practice of mindful awareness. The Buddha also departed from earlier yogic thought in discarding the early Brahminic notion of liberation at death. Liberation for the Brahminic yogin was thought to be the realization at death of a nondual meditative state anticipated in life. In fact, old Brahminic metaphors for the liberation at death of the yogic adept (“becoming cool,” “going out”) were given a new meaning by the Buddha; their point of reference became the sage who is liberated in life.
 Indian Antiquity
Classical Yoga as a system of contemplation with the aim of uniting the human spirit with Ishvara, the “Supreme Being” developed in early Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism during Indian Antiquity, between the Mauryan and the Gupta era (roughly the 2nd century BCE to the 5th century CE).
 Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
|Yoga Sutras of Patanjali|
|Pada (Chapter)||English meaning||Sutras|
|Samadhi Pada||On being absorbed in spirit||51|
|Sadhana Pada||On being immersed in spirit||55|
|Vibhuti Pada||On supernatural abilities and gifts||56|
|Kaivalya Pada||On absolute freedom||34|
In Hindu philosophy, Yoga is the name of one of the six orthodox philosophical schools  founded by Patanjali with heavy Buddhist influence. This school accepts the Samkhya psychology and metaphysics, but is more theistic than the Samkhya, as evidenced by the addition of a divine entity to the Samkhya’s twenty-five elements of reality. The parallels between Yoga and Samkhya were so close that Max Müller says that “the two philosophies were in popular parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya with and Samkhya without a Lord….” The intimate relationship between Samkhya and Yoga is explained by Heinrich Zimmer:
These two are regarded in India as twins, the two aspects of a single discipline. Sāṅkhya provides a basic theoretical exposition of human nature, enumerating and defining its elements, analyzing their manner of co-operation in a state of bondage (“bandha“), and describing their state of disentanglement or separation in release (“mokṣa“), while Yoga treats specifically of the dynamics of the process for the disentanglement, and outlines practical techniques for the gaining of release, or “isolation-integration” (“kaivalya”).
Patanjali is widely regarded as the compiler of the formal Yoga philosophy. Patanjali’s yoga is known as Raja yoga, which is a system for control of the mind. Patanjali defines the word “yoga” in his second sutra, which is the definitional sutra for his entire work:
योग: चित्त-वृत्ति निरोध:
- Yoga Sutras 1.2
This terse definition hinges on the meaning of three Sanskrit terms. I. K. Taimni translates it as “Yoga is the inhibition (nirodhaḥ) of the modifications (vṛtti) of the mind (citta)”. The use of the word nirodhaḥ in the opening definition of yoga is an example of the important role that Buddhist technical terminology and concepts play in the Yoga Sutra; this role suggests that Patanjali was aware of Buddhist ideas and wove them into his system. Swami Vivekananda translates the sutra as “Yoga is restraining the mind-stuff (Citta) from taking various forms (Vrittis).”
Patanjali’s writing also became the basis for a system referred to as “Ashtanga Yoga” (“Eight-Limbed Yoga”). This eight-limbed concept derived from the 29th Sutra of the 2nd book, and is a core characteristic of practically every Raja yoga variation taught today. The Eight Limbs are:
- Yama (The five “abstentions”): Ahimsa (non-violence), Satya (Truth, non-lying), Asteya (non-covetousness), Brahmacharya (non-sensuality, celibacy), and Aparigraha (non-possessiveness).
- Niyama (The five “observances”): Shaucha(purity), Santosha(contentment), Tapas (austerity), Svadhyaya (study of the Vedic scriptures to know about God and the soul), and Ishvara-Pranidhana (surrender to God).
- Asana: Literally means “seat”, and in Patanjali’s Sutras refers to the seated position used for meditation.
- Pranayama (“Suspending Breath”): Prāna, breath, “āyāma”, to restrain or stop. Also interpreted as control of the life force.
- Pratyahara (“Abstraction”): Withdrawal of the sense organs from external objects.
- Dharana (“Concentration”): Fixing the attention on a single object.
- Dhyana (“Meditation”): Intense contemplation of the nature of the object of meditation.
- Samādhi (“Liberation”): merging consciousness with the object of meditation.
In the view of this school, the highest attainment does not reveal the experienced diversity of the world to be illusion. The everyday world is real. Furthermore, the highest attainment is the event of one of many individual selves discovering itself; there is no single universal self shared by all persons.
 Yoga Yajnavalkya
The Yoga Yajnavalkya is a classical treatise on yoga attributed to Vedic sage Yajnavalkya. It takes the form of a dialogue between Yajnavalkya and his wife Gargi, a renowned female philosopher. The text consists of 12 chapters and its origin has been traced to the period between the second century B.C.E. and fourth century C.E. The Yoga Yajnavalkya predates most other yoga texts, with the exception of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Most later yoga texts like the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the Yoga Kundalini and Yoga Tattva Upanishads have borrowed verses almost verbatim from or make frequent references to the Yoga Yajnavalkya. The Yoga Yajnavalkya is regarded to be the most important and authentic classical text on yoga after the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. In the Yoga Yajnavalkya, yoga is defined as jivatmaparamatmasamyogah, or the union between the individual self (jivatma) and the Divine (paramatma).
 Yoga and Samkhya
Patanjali systematized the conceptions of Yoga and set them forth on the background of the metaphysics of Samkhya, which he assumed with slight variations. In the early works, the Yoga principles appear along with the Samkhya ideas. Vyasa’s commentary on the Yoga Sutras, also called the “Samkhyapravacanabhasya,” brings out the intimate relation between the two systems.
Yoga agrees with the essential metaphysics of Samkhya, but differs from it in that while Samkhya holds that knowledge is the means of liberation, Yoga is a system of active striving, mental discipline, and dutiful action. Yoga also introduces the conception of God. Sometimes Patanjali’s system is referred to as “Seshvara Samkhya” in contradistinction to Kapila’s “Nirivara Samkhya.” 
 Bhagavad Gita
The Bhagavad Gita (‘Song of the Lord’), uses the term “yoga” extensively in a variety of ways. In addition to an entire chapter (ch. 6) dedicated to traditional yoga practice, including meditation, it introduces three prominent types of yoga:
- Karma yoga: The yoga of action.
- Bhakti yoga: The yoga of devotion, note Krishna had also specified devotion itself was action similar to above.
- Jnana yoga: The yoga of knowledge.
योगस्थ: कुरु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा धनंजय ।
सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्यो: समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते ।।
(yoga-sthaḥ kuru karmani sanyugam tyaktvā dhananjay
siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhutvā samatvam yoga ucyate)
- Bhagavad Gita 2.48
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada translates it as “Be steadfast in yoga (yoga-sthaḥ), O Arjuna. Perform your duty (kuru karmani) and abandon all attachment (sangam) to success or failure (siddhy-asiddhyoḥ). Such evenness of mind (samatvam) is called yoga.”
Madhusudana Sarasvati (b. circa 1490) divided the Gita into three sections, with the first six chapters dealing with Karma yoga, the middle six with Bhakti yoga, and the last six with Jnana (knowledge). Other commentators ascribe a different ‘yoga’ to each chapter, delineating eighteen different yogas.
 Yoga and Jainism
According to “Tattvarthasutra,” 2nd century CE Jain text, “Yoga,” is the sum total of all the activities of mind, speech and body. Umasvati calls yoga the cause of “asrava” or karmic influx  as well as one of the essentials—samyak caritra—in the path to liberation. In his “Niyamasara,” Acarya Kundakunda, describes yoga bhakti—devotion to the path to liberation—as the highest form of devotion. Acarya Haribhadra and Acarya Hemacandra mention the five major vows of ascetics and 12 minor vows of laity under yoga. This has led certain Indologists like Prof. Robert J. Zydenbos to call Jainism, essentially, a system of yogic thinking that grew into a full-fledged religion.
The five yamas or the constraints of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali bear a resemblance to the five major vows of Jainism, indicating a history of strong cross-fertilization between these traditions.
 Yogacara school
In the late phase of Indian antiquity, on the eve of the development of Classical Hinduism, the Yogacara movement arises during the Gupta period (4th to 5th centuries). Yogacara received the name as it provided a “yoga,” a framework for engaging in the practices that lead to the path of the bodhisattva. The Yogacara sect teaches “yoga” as a way to reach enlightenment.
 Middle Ages
The practice of Yoga remained in development in Classical Hinduism, and cognate techniques of meditation within Buddhism, throughout the medieval period.
 Yoga in classical Jain literature
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Earliest of Jain canonical literature like Acarangasutra and texts like Niyamasara, Tattvarthasutra etc. had many references on yoga as a way of life for laymen and ascetics. The later texts that further elaborated on the Jain concept of yoga are as follows:
- Pujyapada (5th century CE)
- Acarya Haribhadra Suri(8th century CE)
- Acarya Joindu (8th century CE)
- Acarya Hemacandra (11th century CE)
- Acarya Amitagati (11th century CE)
 Bhakti movement
The Bhakti movement was a development in medieval Hinduism advocating the concept of a personal God (or “Supreme Personality of Godhead“), initiated by the Alvars of South India in the 6th to 9th centuries, and gaining influence throughout India by the 12th to 15th centuries, giving rise to sects such as Gaudiya Vaishnavism. The Bhagavata Purana is an important text of the Bhakti movement within Vaishnavism. It focusses on the concept of bhakti (devotion to God) in the theological framework of Krishnaism.
The Bhagavata Purana is a commentary and elaboration on the Bhagavadgita, an older text of the Mahabharata epic which rose to great importance in Vaishnavism during the Bhakti movement. In the Bhagavadgita (3.3), jñānayoga is the acquisition of true knowledge, as opposed to karmayoga, the performance of the proper religious rites.
This terminology involving various yogas has given rise to the concept of the Four Yogas in modern Hinduism from the 1890s. These are
In this usage, the term “Yoga” ceases to translate to “a system of meditation” and takes on the much more general sense of “religious path”. Thus, Karma Yoga is “the Path of Action”, Bhakti Yoga “the Path of Devotion” and Jnana Yoga “the Path of Knowledge”, all standing alongside Raja Yoga, “the Path of Meditation” as alternative possibilities towards religious fulfillment.
 Hatha Yoga
Hatha Yoga, sometimes referred to as the “psychophysical yoga”, is a particular system of Yoga described by Yogi Swatmarama, compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika in 15th century India. Hatha Yoga differs substantially from the Raja Yoga of Patanjali in that it focuses on “shatkarma,” the purification of the physical body as leading to the purification of the mind (“ha”), and “prana,” or vital energy (tha). Compared to the seated asana, or sitting meditation posture, of Patanjali’s Raja yoga, it marks the development of asanas (plural) into the full body ‘postures’ now in popular usage  and, along with its many modern variations, is the style that many people associate with the word “Yoga” today.
Hatha Yoga exercises have resulted in severe bodily dysfunction or injury. Practitioners suggest that this is primarily the case when individuals push themselves or are pushed beyond what their physical condition will support.
 Modern history
 Hindu revivalism
New schools of Yoga were introduced in the context of Hindu revivalism towards the end of the 19th century.
The physical poses of Hatha Yoga have a tradition that goes back to the 15th century, but they were not widely practiced in India prior to the early 20th century. Hatha Yoga was advocated by a number of late 19th to early 20th century gurus in India, including Sri Tirumalai Krishnamacharya in south India, Swami Sivananda in the north, Sri Yogendra in Bombay, and Swami Kuvalyananda in Lonavala.
In 1946, Paramahansa Yogananda in his Autobiography of a Yogi introduced the term Kriya Yoga for the tradition of Yoga transmitted by his lineage of gurus, deriving it via Yukteswar Giri and Lahiri Mahasaya from Mahavatar Babaji (fl. 1860s). Also influential in the development of modern Yoga were Tirumalai Krishnamacharya, and his disciple K. Pattabhi Jois, who introduced his style of Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga in 1948. Most systems of Hatha Yoga which developed from the 1960s in the “yoga boom” in the West are derived from Jois’ system.
 Reception in the West
Yoga came to the attention of an educated western public in the mid 19th century along with other topics of Hindu philosophy. The first Hindu teacher to actively advocate and disseminate aspects of Yoga to a western audience was Swami Vivekananda, who toured Europe and the United States in the 1890s.
In the West, the term “yoga” is today typically associated with Hatha Yoga and its asanas (postures) or as a form of exercise. In the 1960s, western interest in Hindu spirituality reached its peak, giving rise to a great number of Neo-Hindu schools specifically advocated to a western public. Among the teachers of Hatha yoga who were active in the west in this period were B.K.S. Iyengar, K. Pattabhi Jois, and Swami Vishnu-devananda, and Swami Satchidananda.   A second “yoga boom” followed in the 1980s, as Dean Ornish, a follower of Swami Satchidananda, connected yoga to heart health, legitimizing yoga as a purely physical system of health exercises outside of counter culture or esotericism circles, and unconnected to a religious denomination.
Kundalini Yoga, considered an advanced form of yoga and meditation, was on the whole a secretive and misunderstood technology – it was not widely taught by any master teachers outside of India until Yogi Bhajan(Siri Singh Sahib) brought his understanding of the teachings to the United States in 1969.
There has been an emergence of studies investigating yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer patients. Yoga is used for treatment of cancer patients to decrease depression, insomnia, pain, and fatigue and increase anxiety control. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programs include yoga as a mind-body technique to reduce stress. A study found that after seven weeks the group treated with yoga reported significantly less mood disturbance and reduced stress compared to the control group. Another study found that MBSR had showed positive effects on sleep anxiety, quality of life, and spiritual growth.
Yoga has also been studied as a treatment for schizophrenia. Yoga is found to improve cognitive functions and reduce stress in schizophrenia, a condition associated with cognitive deficits and stress-related relapse. In one study, at the end of four months those patients treated with yoga were better in their social and occupational functions and quality of life.
The three main focuses of Hatha yoga (exercise, breathing, and meditation) make it beneficial to those suffering from heart disease. Overall, studies of the effects of yoga on heart disease suggest that yoga may reduce high blood pressure, improve symptoms of heart failure, enhance cardiac rehabilitation, and lower cardiovascular risk factors.
Long-term yoga practitioners in the United States have reported musculoskeletal and mental health improvements, as well reduced symptoms of asthma in asthmatics. Regular yoga practice increases brain GABA levels and has been shown to improve mood and anxiety more than some other metabolically matched exercises, such as walking. Implementation of the Kundalini Yoga Lifestyle has shown to help substance abuse addicts increase their quality of life according to psychological questionnaires like the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale and the Quality of Recovery Index.
 Yoga compared with other systems of meditation
Tantrism is a practice that is supposed to alter the relation of its practitioners to the ordinary social, religious, and logical reality in which they live. Through Tantric practice, an individual perceives reality as maya, illusion, and the individual achieves liberation from it. Both Tantra & Yoga offer paths that relieve a person from depending on the world. Where Yoga relies on progressive restriction of inputs from outside; Tantra relies on transmutation of all external inputs so that one is no longer dependent on them, but can take them or leave them at will. They both make a person independent. This particular path to salvation among the several offered by Hinduism, links Tantrism to those practices of Indian religions, such as yoga, meditation, and social renunciation, which are based on temporary or permanent withdrawal from social relationships and modes.
As Robert Svoboda attempts to summarize the three major paths of the Vedic knowledge, he exclaims:
Because every embodied individual is composed of a body, a mind and a spirit, the ancient Rishis of India who developed the Science of Life organized their wisdom into three bodies of knowledge: Ayurveda, which deals mainly with the physical body; Yoga, which deals mainly with spirit; and Tantra, which is mainly concerned with the mind. The philosophy of all three is identical; their manifestations differ because of their differing emphases. Ayurveda is most concerned with the physical basis of life, concentrating on its harmony of mind and spirit. Yoga controls body and mind to enable them to harmonize with spirit, and Tantra seeks to use the mind to balance the demands of body and spirit.
During tantric practices and studies, the student is instructed further in meditation technique, particularly chakra meditation. This is often in a limited form in comparison with the way this kind of meditation is known and used by Tantric practitioners and yogis elsewhere, but is more elaborate than the initiate’s previous meditation. It is considered to be a kind of Kundalini Yoga for the purpose of moving the Goddess into the chakra located in the “heart”, for meditation and worship.
Even though the roots of Yoga date back to a period of time contemporaneous with early Buddhism and its interaction with Vedanta, Buddhist meditation or dhyana in the medieval period took a separate development from Yoga as laid down by Patanjali and its descendants.
 Zen Buddhism
Zen (the name of which derives from the Sanskrit “dhyaana” via the Chinese “ch’an”) is a form of Mahayana Buddhism. The Mahayana school of Buddhism is noted for its proximity with Yoga. In the west, Zen is often set alongside Yoga; the two schools of meditation display obvious family resemblances. This phenomenon merits special attention since yogic practices have some of their roots in the Zen Buddhist school. Certain essential elements of Yoga are important both for Buddhism in general and for Zen in particular.
 Tibetan Buddhism
Yoga is central to Tibetan Buddhism. In the Nyingma tradition, the path of meditation practice is divided into nine yanas, or vehicles, which are said to be increasingly profound. The last six are described as “yoga yanas”: “Kriya yoga,” “Upa yoga,” “Yoga yana,” “Mahā yoga,” “Anu yoga” and the ultimate practice, “Ati yoga.”  The Sarma traditions also include Kriya, Upa (called “Charya”), and Yoga, with the Anuttara yoga class substituting for Mahayoga and Atiyoga.
Other tantra yoga practices include a system of 108 bodily postures practiced with breath and heart rhythm. The Nyingma tradition also practices Yantra yoga (Tib. “Trul khor”), a discipline that includes breath work (or pranayama), meditative contemplation and precise dynamic movements to centre the practitioner. The body postures of Tibetan ancient yogis are depicted on the walls of the Dalai Lama’s summer temple of Lukhang. A semi-popular account of Tibetan Yoga by Chang (1993) refers to caṇḍalī (Tib. “tummo”), the generation of heat in one’s own body, as being “the very foundation of the whole of Tibetan Yoga.”  Chang also claims that Tibetan Yoga involves reconciliation of apparent polarities, such as prana and mind, relating this to theoretical implications of tantrism.
 Christian meditation
Some Christians integrate yoga and other aspects of Eastern spirituality with prayer and meditation. This has been attributed to a desire to experience God in a more complete way. The Roman Catholic Church, and some other Christian organizations have expressed concerns and disapproval with respect to some eastern and New Age practices that include yoga and meditation.
In 1989 and 2003, the Vatican issued two documents: Aspects of Christian meditation and “A Christian reflection on the New Age,” that were mostly critical of eastern and New Age practices. The 2003 document was published as a 90 page handbook detailing the Vatican’s position. The Vatican warned that concentration on the physical aspects of meditation “can degenerate into a cult of the body” and that equating bodily states with mysticism “could also lead to psychic disturbance and, at times, to moral deviations.” Such has been compared to the early days of Christianity, when the church opposed the gnostics’ belief that salvation came not through faith but through a mystical inner knowledge.
The letter also says, “one can see if and how [prayer] might be enriched by meditation methods developed in other religions and cultures” but maintains the idea that “there must be some fit between the nature of [other approaches to] prayer and Christian beliefs about ultimate reality.”
The development of Sufism was considerably influenced by Indian yogic practises, where they adapted both physical postures (asanas) and breath control (pranayama). The ancient Indian yogic text Amritakunda (“Pool of Nectar)” was translated into Arabic and Persian as early as the 11th century. Several other yogic texts were appropriated by Sufi tradition, but typically the texts juxtapose yoga materials alongside Sufi practices without any real attempt at integration or synthesis. Yoga became known to Indian Sufis gradually over time, but engagement with yoga is not found at the historical beginnings of the tradition.
Malaysia’s top Islamic body in 2008 passed a fatwa, which is legally non-binding, against Muslims practicing yoga, saying it had elements of “Hindu spiritual teachings” and that its practice was blasphemy and is therefore haraam. Muslim yoga teachers in Malaysia criticized the decision as “insulting.” Sisters in Islam, a women’s rights group in Malaysia, also expressed disappointment and said that its members would continue with their yoga classes.
The fatwa states that yoga practiced only as physical exercise is permissible, but prohibits the chanting of religious mantras, and states that teachings such as the uniting of a human with God is not consistent with Islamic philosophy. In a similar vein, the Council of Ulemas, an Islamic body in Indonesia, passed a fatwa banning yoga on the grounds that it contains “Hindu elements” These fatwas have, in turn, been criticized by Darul Uloom Deoband, a Deobandi Islamic seminary in India.
In May 2009, Turkey’s head of the Directorate of Religious Affairs, Ali Bardakoğlu, discounted personal development techniques such as yoga as commercial ventures that could lead to extremism. His comments were made in the context of yoga possibly competing with and eroding participation in Islamic practice.
- ^ Baptiste, Sherri; Scott, Megan (2005-12-16). Yoga with Weights for Dummies. ISBN 9780471749370. http://books.google.com/?id=J6tEKjkY6WYC&pg=PA325&dq=yoga+originates#v=onepage&q=yoga%20originates&f=false.
- ^ Yogani (2010-12-01). Advanced Yoga Practices – Easy Lessons for Ecstatic Living. ISBN 9780981925523. http://books.google.com/?id=pWDZorvxl1sC&pg=PA50&dq=yoga+ancient+india#v=onepage&q=yoga%20ancient%20india&f=false.
- ^ For the uses of the word in Pāli literature, see Thomas William Rhys Davids, William Stede, Pali-English dictionary. Reprint by Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1993, page 558: 
- ^ Denise Lardner Carmody, John Carmody, Serene Compassion. Oxford University Press US, 1996, page 68.
- ^ Stuart Ray Sarbacker, Samādhi: The Numinous and Cessative in Indo-Tibetan Yoga. SUNY Press, 2005, pages 1–2.
- ^ a b Tattvarthasutra [6.1], see Manu Doshi (2007) Translation of Tattvarthasutra, Ahmedabad: Shrut Ratnakar p. 102
- ^ “Yoga has five principal meanings: 1) yoga as a disciplined method for attaining a goal; 2) yoga as techniques of controlling the body and the mind; 3) yoga as a name of one of the schools or systems of philosophy (darśana); 4) yoga in connection with other words, such as “hatha-, mantra-, and laya-,” referring to traditions specialising in particular techniques of yoga; 5) yoga as the goal of yoga practice.” Jacobsen, p. 4.
- ^ Monier-Williams includes “it is the second of the two Sāṃkhya systems,” and “abstraction practised as a system (as taught by Patañjali and called the Yoga philosophy)” in his definitions of “yoga.”
- ^ Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, pp. 19–20.
- ^ Pandit Usharbudh Arya (1985). The philosophy of hatha yoga. Himalayan Institute Press; 2nd ed.
- ^ Sri Swami Rama (2008) The royal path: Practical lessons on yoga. Himalayan Institute Press; New Ed edition.
- ^ Swami Prabhavananda (Translator), Christopher Isherwood (Translator), Patanjali (Author). (1996). Vedanta Press; How to know god: The yoga aphorisms of Patanjali. New Ed edition.
- ^ American Heritage Dictionary: “Yogi, One who practices yoga.” Websters: “Yogi, A follower of the yoga philosophy; an ascetic.”
- ^ a b Jacobsen, p. 10.
- ^ Jacobsen, p. 9.
- ^ “Vaishnavism” Britannica Concise “Characterized by an emphasis on bhakti, its goal is to escape the cycle of birth and death in order to enjoy the presence of Vishnu.”
- ^ Feuerstein, Georg. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Yoga. New York: Paragon House, 1990. Print.
- ^ Possehl (2003), pp. 144–145
- ^ See:
- Jonathan Mark Kenoyer describes one figure as “seated in yogic position.” “Around the Indus in 90 Slides” by Jonathan Mark Kenoyer
- Karel Werner writes that “Archeological discoveries allow us therefore to speculate with some justification that a wide range of Yoga activities was already known to the people of pre-Aryan India.” Werner, Karel (1998). Yoga and Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.. p. 103. ISBN 9788120816091. http://books.google.com/?id=c6b3lH0-OekC&pg=PA103. .
- Heinrich Zimmer describes one seal as “seated like a yogi.” Zimmer, Heinrich (1972). Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton University Press, New Ed edition. p. 168. ISBN 978-0691017785.
- Thomas McEvilley writes that “The six mysterious Indus Valley seal images…all without exception show figures in a position known in hatha yoga as mulabhandasana or possibly the closely related “utkatasana” or “baddha konasana….” McEvilley, Thomas (2002). The shape of ancient thought. Allworth Communications. pp. 219–220. ISBN 9781581152036. http://books.google.com/?id=Vpqr1vNWQhUC&pg=PA219.
- Dr. Farzand Masih, Punjab University Archaeology Department Chairman, describes a recently discovered seal as depicting a “yogi.” Rare objects discovery points to ruins treasure
- Gavin Flood disputes the idea regarding one of the seals, the so-called “Pashupati seal,” writing that it isn’t clear the figure is seated in a yoga posture, or that the shape is intended to represent a human figure. Flood, pp. 28–29.
- Geoffrey Samuel, regarding the Pashupati seal, believes that we “do not actually “know” how to interpret the figure, nor do we know what he or she represent.”Samuel, Geoffrey (2008). The Origins of Yoga and Tantra. Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780521695343. http://books.google.com/?id=JAvrTGrbpf4C&pg=PA4.
- ^ Flood, pp. 94–95.
- ^ a b Alexander Wynne, “The Origin of Buddhist Meditation.” Routledge, 2007, page 51.
- ^ Alexander Wynne, “The Origin of Buddhist Meditation.” Routledge, 2007, page 56.
- ^ Flood, p. 94.
- ^ Flood, p. 95. For the date of this Upanishad see also e.g. Helmuth von Glasenapp, from the 1950 Proceedings of the “Akademie der Wissenschaften und Literatur”, . Some have argued that it is post-Buddhist, see for example Arvind Sharma’s review of Hajime Nakamura‘s “A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy,” Philosophy East and West, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Jul., 1987), pp. 325–331. For a comprehensive examination of the uses of the Pali word “yoga” in early Buddhist texts, see Thomas William Rhys Davids, William Stede, “Pali-English dictionary.” Reprint by Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1993, page 558: . For the use of the word in the sense of “spiritual practice” in the Dhammapada, see Gil Fronsdal, “The Dhammapada”, Shambhala, 2005, pages 56, 130.
- ^ Shvetashvatara Upanishad
- ^ Alexander Wynne, “The Origin of Buddhist Meditation.” Routledge, 2007, page 50.
- ^ Richard Gombrich, “Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo.” Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, page 44.
- ^ Barbara Stoler Miller, “Yoga: Discipline of Freedom: the Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali; a Translation of the Text, with Commentary, Introduction, and Glossary of Keywords.” University of California Press, 1996, page 8.
- ^ Alexander Wynne, “The Origin of Buddhist Meditation.” Routledge, 2007, page 73
- ^ Alexander Wynne, “The Origin of Buddhist Meditation.” Routledge, 2007, page 105.
- ^ Alexander Wynne, “The Origin of Buddhist Meditation.” Routledge, 2007, page 96.
- ^ Alexander Wynne, “The Origin of Buddhist Meditation.” Routledge, 2007, page 109.
- ^ Stiles 2001, p. x.
- ^ For an overview of the six orthodox schools, with detail on the grouping of schools, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, “Contents,” and pp. 453–487.
- ^ For a brief overview of the Yoga school of philosophy see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43.
- ^ Karel Werner, The Yogi and the Mystic. Routledge 1994, page 27.
- ^ For Yoga acceptance of Samkhya concepts, but with addition of a category for God, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, p. 453.
- ^ For Yoga as accepting the 25 principles of Samkhya with the addition of God, see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43.
- ^ Müller (1899), Chapter 7, “Yoga Philosophy,” p. 104.
- ^ Zimmer (1951), p. 280.
- ^ For Patanjali as the founder of the philosophical system called Yoga see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 42.
- ^ For “raja yoga” as a system for control of the mind and connection to Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras as a key work, see: Flood (1996), pp. 96–98.
- ^ For text and word-by-word translation as “Yoga is the inhibition of the modifications of the mind.” See: Taimni, p. 6.
- ^ Barbara Stoler Miller, “Yoga: Discipline of Freedom: the Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali; a Translation of the Text, with Commentary, Introduction, and Glossary of Keywords.” University of California Press, 1996, page 9.
- ^ Vivekanada, p. 115.
- ^ Stephen H. Phillips, “Classical Indian Metaphysics: Refutations of Realism and the Emergence of “New Logic.” Open Court Publishing, 1995., pages 12–13.
- ^ Radhankrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, p. 342.
- ^ Radhankrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, p. 344.
- ^ “…Bhagavad Gita, including a complete chapter (ch. 6) devoted to traditional yoga practice. The Gita also introduces the famous three kinds of yoga, ‘knowledge’ (jnana), ‘action’ (karma), and ‘love’ (bhakti).” Flood, p. 96.
- ^ “Ch. 2.48″ “Bhagavad-Gita As It Is” by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, courtesy of the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, www.Krishna.com.
- ^ Gambhirananda, p. 16.
- ^ Jacobsen, p. 46.
- ^ a b Tattvarthasutra [6.2]
- ^ Niyamasara [134-40]
- ^ Zydenbos, Robert. “Jainism Today and Its Future.” München: Manya Verlag, 2006. p.66
- ^ Zydenbos (2006) p.66
- ^ “A History of Yoga” by Vivian Worthington (1982) Routledge ISBN 071009258X p. 29. “Yoga fully acknowledges its debt to Jainism, and Jainism reciprocates by making the practice of yoga part and parcel of life.” Vivian Worthington (1982) p. 35
- ^ Dan Lusthaus. Buddhist Phenomenology: A Philosophical Investigation of Yogacara Buddhism and the Ch’eng Wei-shih Lun. Published 2002 (Routledge). ISBN 0700711864. pg 533
- ^ Simple Tibetan Buddhism: A Guide to Tantric Living By C. Alexander Simpkins, Annellen M. Simpkins. Published 2001. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0804831998
- ^ Cutler, Norman (1987). Songs of Experience. Indiana University Press. pp. 1. ISBN 9780253353344. http://books.google.com/books?id=veSItWingx8C&pg=PA1.
- ^ Raub, James A.. Psychophysiologic Effects of Hatha Yoga on Musculoskeletal and Cardiopulmonary Function: A Literature Review.
- ^ Living Yoga: Creating a Life Practice – Page 42 by Christy Turlington (page 42)
- ^ “Guiding Yoga’s Light: Yoga Lessons for Yoga Teachers” – Page 10 by Nancy Gerstein
- ^ “Mindfulness Yoga: The Awakened Union of Breath Body & Mind” – Page 6 by Frank Jude Boccio
- ^ “Hatha Yoga: Its Context, Theory and Practice” by Mikel Burley (page 16)
- ^ Feuerstein, Georg. (1996). “The Shambhala Guide to Yoga.” Boston & London: Shambhala Publications, Inc.
- ^ William J. Broad, “How Yoga can wreck your body”, New York Times, January 5, 2012
- ^ a b Shaw, Eric. 35 mOMents, Yoga Journal, 2010-09.
- ^ Title: A History of Modern Yoga. Author: Elizabeth De Michelis. Published: Continuum, 2005
- ^ Cushman, Cushman (Jan/Feb 2000). “The New Yoga”. Yoga Journal.com. pp. 68. http://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/281. Retrieved 05-02-2011.
- ^ Silva, Mira, and Mehta, Shyam. (1995). Yoga the Iyengar Way, p. 9. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 0-89381-731-7
- ^ Desikachar, T. K. V. (2005). Health, healing and beyond: Yoga and the living tradition of Krishnamacharya, (cover jacket text). Aperture, USA. ISBN 9780893817312
- ^ Congressional Honorary Resolution 521 US Library of Congress
- ^ DeStasio, Susan A. Integrating Yoga Into Cancer Care. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing. Feb 2008, Volume 12 Issue 1. p125-130
- ^ Smith K, Pukall C. An evidence-based review of yoga as a complementary intervention for patients with cancer. Psycho-Oncology [serial online]. May 2009;18(5):465-475.
- ^ Duraiswamy, G. G., Thirthalli, J. J., Nagendra, H. R., & Gangadhar, B. N. (2007). Yoga therapy as an add-on treatment in the management of patients with schizophrenia – a randomized controlled trial. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 116(3), 226-232. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2007.01032.x
- ^ Yoga could be good for heart disease. Simultaneous focus on body, breathing, and mind may be just what the doctor ordered. (2010). Harvard Heart Letter: From Harvard Medical School, 21(3), 5. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
- ^ Birdee, Gurjeet S. et al. “Characteristics of Yoga Users: Results of a National Survey.” Journal of General Internal Medicine. Oct 2008, Volume 23 Issue 10. p1653-1658
- ^ Streeter, Chris C. et al. “Effects of Yoga Versus Walking on Mood, Anxiety, and Brain GABA Levels: A Randomized Controlled MRS Study.” Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. Nov 2010, Volume 16 Issue 11, p1145-115
- ^ Khalsa, Sat Bir S. et al. Evaluation of a Residential Kundalini Yoga Lifestyle Pilot Program for Addiction in India. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse. 2008, Volume 7 Issue 1. p67-79
- ^ a b Title: Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. Author: Robert I. Levy. Published: University of California Press, 1991. pp 313
- ^ a b Your ayurvedic constitution: Prakruti by Robert Svoboda Motilal Banarsidass Publication,2005; ISBN 9788120818408 Google Books
- ^ Title: Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. Author: Robert I. Levy. Published: University of California Press, 1991. pp 317
- ^ The Buddhist Tradition in India, China, and Japan. Edited by William Theodore de Bary. Pgs. 207–208. ISBN 0-394-71696-5 – “The Meditation school, called ‘Ch’an’ in Chinese from the Sanskrit ‘dhyāna,’ is best known in the West by the Japanese pronunciation ‘Zen’ “
- ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) by Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 22)
- ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) by Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (Page xviii)
- ^ “Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China)” by Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 13). Translated by James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter. Contributor John McRae. Published 2005 World Wisdom. 387 pages. ISBN 0941532895 [Exact quote: "This phenomenon merits special attention since yogic roots are to be found in the Zen Buddhist school of meditation."]
- ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) by Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 13)
- ^ The Lion’s Roar: An Introduction to Tantra by Chogyam Trungpa. Shambhala, 2001 ISBN 1570628955
- ^ “Secret of the Vajra World: The Tantric Buddhism of Tibet” by Ray, Reginald A. Shambhala: 2002. ISBN 157062917X pg 37–38
- ^ “Secret of the Vajra World: The Tantric Buddhism of Tibet” by Ray, Reginald A. Shambhala: 2002. ISBN 157062917X pg 57
- ^ “Yantra Yoga: The Tibetan Yoga of Movement” by Chogyal Namkhai Norbu. Snow Lion, 2008. ISBN 1559393084
- ^ Chang, G.C.C. (1993). “Tibetan Yoga.” New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1453-1, p.7
- ^ a b c Steinfels, Peter (1990-01-07). “Trying to Reconcile the Ways of the Vatican and the East”. New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE1D61531F934A35752C0A966958260&sec=&spon=. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
- ^ BBC News Feb 4, 2003 “Vatican sounds New Age alert”
- ^ “Catholicism in dialogue: conversations across traditions” by Wayne Teasdale 2004 ISBN 0742531783 Page 74
- ^ Dr. R. Albert Mohler, Jr. “The Subtle Body – Should Christians Practice Yoga?” Accessed Jan 14 2011
- ^ Handbook of vocational psychology by W. Bruce Walsh, Mark Savickas 2005 ISBN 0805845178 page 358
- ^ 1989 Letter from Vatican to Bishops on Some Aspects of Christian Meditation
- ^ Dr Ankerberg, John & Dr Weldon, John, Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs, Harvest House Publishers, 1996
- ^ Ernst, C. W. (2005). “Situating Sufism and Yoga”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 15: 15. doi:10.1017/S1356186304004675.
- ^ “Situating Sufism and Yoga” (PDF). http://www.unc.edu/~cernst/pdf/jras2.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- ^ Top Islamic body: Yoga is not for Muslims – CNN
- ^ “Mixed reactions to yoga ban”. Thestar.com.my. 2008-11-23. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/11/23/nation/2625368&sec=nation. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- ^ “Malaysia leader: Yoga for Muslims OK without chant,” Associated Press
- ^ “Laman Web Rasmi Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia”. Islam.gov.my. http://www.islam.gov.my/portal/lihat.php?jakim=3600. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- ^ “Indonesian clerics issue yoga ban”. BBC News. 2009-01-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7850079.stm. Retrieved 2010-04-06.
- ^ “rediff.com: Why give yoga religious connotation: Deoband”. Specials.rediff.com. 2009-01-29. http://specials.rediff.com/news/2009/jan/29video-islam-allows-yoga-deoband.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- ^ “It’s OK to stretch, just don’t believe”. Hurriyet.com.tr. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/english/domestic/11692086.asp?gid=244. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0567-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=viCLcBdaPAEC. (fourth revised & enlarged edition).
- Chang, G.C.C. (1993). Tibetan Yoga. New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1453-1
- Chapple, Christopher.(1993) Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions. New York: SUNY Press, 1993 p. 7
- Eliade, Mircea (1958). Yoga: Immortality and Freedom. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691142036.
- Feuerstein, Georg (1996). The Shambhala Guide to Yoga. 1st ed.. Boston & London: Shambhala Publications.
- Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=KpIWhKnYmF0C.
- Gambhirananda, Swami (1998). Madhusudana Sarasvati Bhagavad_Gita: With the annotation Gūḍhārtha Dīpikā. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama Publication Department. ISBN 81-7505-194-9.
- Jacobsen, Knut A. (Editor); Larson, Gerald James (Editor) (2005). Theory And Practice of Yoga: Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004147578. (Studies in the History of Religions, 110 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=TDGFFNYvrokC)
- Maehle, Gregor (2006). Ashtanga Yoga: Practice and Philosophy. Novato: New World Library. ISBN 978-1-57731-606-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=f9ygWu2xM3QC.
- Müller, Max (1899). Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Ltd.. ISBN 0-7661-4296-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=hiH57a0tGpcC. Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of “The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy.”
- Possehl, Gregory (2003). The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0759101722. http://books.google.com/books?id=pmAuAsi4ePIC.
- Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, CA (1967). A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princeton. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.
- Taimni, I. K. (1961). The Science of Yoga. Adyar, India: The Theosophical Publishing House. ISBN 81-7059-212-7.
- Worthington, Vivian (1982). A History of Yoga. Routledge. ISBN 071009258X.
- Zimmer, Heinrich (1951). Philosophies of India. New York, New York: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01758-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=bRQ5fpTmwoAC. Bollingen Series XXVI; Edited by Joseph Cambell.
- Zydenbos, Robert. Jainism Today and Its Future. München: Manya Verlag, 2006. p. 66
 Further reading
- Baba, Meher (2000). The Path of Love. Myrtle Beach, S.C.: Sheriar Press. ISBN 1880619237.
- Chatterjee, Satischandra; Datta, Dhirendramohan (1984). An Introduction to Indian Philosophy (Eighth Reprint ed.). Calcutta: University of Calcutta. ISBN 8129111950.
- Donatelle, Rebecca J. Health: The Basics. 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. 2005.
- Harinanda, Swami. Yoga and The Portal. Jai Dee Marketing. ISBN 0978142950. http://books.google.com/books?id=rpamu1q0vxEC.
- Keay, John (2000). India: A History. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=ibLUu6RlvqwC.
- Marshall, John (1931). Mohenjodaro and the Indus Civilization: Being an Official Account of Archaeological Excavations at Mohenjodaro Carried Out by the Government of India Between the Years 1922–27. Delhi: Indological Book House.
- Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08953-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=PD-flQMc1ocC.
- Mittra, Dharma Sri. (2003). Asanas: 608 Yoga Poses. California: New World Library.
- Mohan, A. G. (2010). Krishnamacharya: His Life and Teachings. Boston: Shambhala. ISBN 978-1-59030-800-4.
- Mohan, A. G., translator (2000). Yoga-Yajnavalkya. Chennai, India: Ganesh & Co. ISBN 81-85988-15-3.
- Saraswati, Swami Satyananda (2002). Asana Pranayama Mudra Bandha. ISBN 81-86336-14-1
- Schnäbele, Verena (2010). Yoga in Modern Society. Bewegungskultur, Vol. 7. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovac. ISBN 978-3-8300-5096-4.
- Usharabudh, Arya Pandit. Philosophy of Hatha Yoga. 2nd ed. Pennsylvania: Himalayan Institute Press 1977, 1985.
- Vivekananda, Swami (1994). Raja Yoga. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama Publication Department. ISBN 81-85301-16-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=vWipfV9zHJgC. 21st reprint edition.
- Weber, Hans-Jörg L. (2007). Yogalehrende in Deutschland: eine humangeographische Studie unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von netzwerktheoretischen, bildungs- und religionsgeographischen Aspekten. Heidelberg: University of Heidelberg. http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/savifadok/volltexte/2008/121/
- Wood, Ernest (1959). Yoga. London, UK: Penguin Books
 External links
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